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The younger generation grew up with the firm notion that their home was in the Philippines, Thailand, or other parts of Southeast Asia. This, despite the fact that younger generations, increasingly rooted in their countries of birth, looked to Southeast Asia for their identities. Some chose assimilation. Moreover, Taiwan and especially Hong Kong emerged as hubs for the popular cultural dissemination of images of and knowledge about China, in the form of newspapers, books, movies, television shows, and pop music.

In the early postwar era, the production of Hong Kong films relied heavily on financing by overseas Chinese and pre-selling to distributors in Southeast Asia. Mandarin and other Sinophone films of the s drew from the folk opera tradition and prewar Shanghai film conventions of featuring songs, historical themes and settings, and love and martial arts genres 68 — conventions on which even mainland Chinese filmmakers had to draw during the past decade when, in collaboration with their Hong Kong and Taiwanese counterparts, they began producing films for the international market.

Jidai-geki pre-Meiji historical drama films from Japan, for example, inspired Hong Kong filmmakers to create their own swordplay movies. Film technicians were trained in Japan, and Japanese talent was hired in Hong Kong. Hong Kong, Taiwan and ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs, professionals, and companies in Southeast Asia, America, and other regions played an important role in this process. In sharp contrast, on questions of security, China remains outside the US-led hub-and-spokes system. A look at the cooperative and collaborative connections and networks in and around Hong Kong cinema reveals how the patterns and densities of regional exchanges have changed over time.

As China became more integrated into the regional system and emerged as the locomotive of regional development after the Asian financial crisis of , mainland Chinese financing and talent inflows gained importance in Hong Kong films. He holds a Japanese passport, and his father is Japanese and mother Taiwanese.

The cultural impact of ongoing regionalization is far less understood and remarked upon.

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Japanization, which reached its peak in the s and 90s as Japan-led economic growth planted the seeds for regional economic integration, has now been subsumed under a broader process of East Asian regionalism and regionalization that has created variegated sources of cultural flows going well beyond Japan and Greater China.

Indeed, China is distinguished by a relative lack of soft power compared to America. What we see, instead, are multiple instances of cultural entrepreneurship that do not necessarily affirm the primacy of mainland China as the cultural center and arbiter of Mandarin Chineseness. Dragon Descendants Museum. A brainchild of former Thai prime minister and himself Sino-Thai Banharn Silpa-archa, the museum was conceived to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Thailand and China.

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Her books on Chinese culture as filtered through her Teo-chiu upbringing — Chinese Knowledge from the Old Man , Chinese Children , Nine Philosophy Stories , and most recently the novel A-Pa — have sold more than , copies to date. Through competing strategies of territorialization, deterritorialization, and reterritorialization, authorities and institutions impose constraints on ethnic Chinese, within both Chinese and non-Chinese territories.

One example is the successful mainland Chinese production of the East Asian romantic comedy genre Lian Ai Qian Gui Ze My Airline Hostess Roommate, which deals with a Beijing-based flight attendant who falls in love with her roommate, a Taiwanese visual artist who creates a cute cat character modeled after Japanese anime. Another example is the persistence and continuing popularity of the traditional Chinese script, despite government attempts to impose and propagate a simplified system; traditional script continues to proliferate in China via the Internet, overseas news media, movies, books, and even shop signs despite government prohibition.

Thus it retains its usefulness as a means by which mainland Chinese can communicate with Taiwan and overseas Chinese communities. Pleasant Goat and Big Big Wolf.

Tourist-service companies in Xiamen, for example, have turned hybridity into a cultural asset as a way of attracting tourists from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia, with which Xiamen has close historical connections. Multiple cultural sites and centers of Chineseness produce different, at times competing, visions of Chineseness. Set in s Hong Kong, tells the story of a young author of erotic newspaper serials.

More important, he lets his characters speak to each other in the language with which they are most comfortable, even though Cantonese, Mandarin, and Japanese are in reality mutually unintelligible. The lingua franca is not found in the movie, but rather on the movie, in the form of subtitles, the language of which varies from one market or set of audiences to another. In Hero , mainland Chinese director Zhang Yimou also takes a chance, through his proxy Nameless Jet Li , that the world is ready for the return of the wandering hero.

Scholars who look at China from a broader, international perspective have generally been wary of subscribing to culturalist arguments. This is apparent in his exclusion of Japan on methodological grounds. Another pattern of difference is the regional circulation of socialist ideas and creation of revolutionary networks in Southeast Asia. Compared to the processes discussed in this chapter, the evidence for this mainland-driven form of becoming-Chinese — such as the proliferation of Chinese newspapers using simplified characters among overseas Chinese communities, the popularity of mainland Chinese popular culture particularly historical dramas among non-mainland Chinese migrant communities, de-Anglicization in Hong Kong — exists to some extent.

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But its capacity to supplant other forms of becoming-Chinese remains debatable. This is a revised and updated version of a chapter in Peter J. Katzenstein, ed. Sinicization and the Rise of China. Civilizational processes beyond East and West London: Routledge, Caroline S. Recommended citation: Caroline S. Only in the nineteenth century did advances in steamship technology make the large-scale movement of people a fact of life.

The ideas were drawn from the many kinds of ethnic and social groups who were within reach of the lands of eastern Asia, and who interacted and intermingled with one another over the millennia. For this, using the modern word civilization may be misleading. The process involved was more important than the total content. As a consequence, English became the de facto regional lingua franca, although colonial states also imposed their own languages on the elites in their territories. The scale, however, was far smaller compared to the spread of English under American hegemony in the postwar and post-Cold War periods.

The situation has changed as economic opportunities created by the rise of China have given Anglo-Chinese more incentives to learn Mandarin. In November , the Chinese government established the China Animation Comic Group to promote animation production, technology, and marketing. The government also provides subsidies to Chinese animation companies Hosaka See Friedman and Gladney on the reinvention of national identity in the post-Mao era. Slump Zhu See the valuable research by Liu Zhaohui , especially Mainland Chinese TV dramas are widely available on cable and are watched by overseas Chinese, but do not as yet command a wide following among non-Chinese Southeast Asians as Korean, Japanese, and Taiwanese dramas do.

Moreover, no power shift has yet happened in favor of China. A proof of mainland-driven Sinicization would be if large numbers of people, whether ethnic Chinese or not, seek to change their passports for a PRC passport, or putonghua becomes the regional lingua franca that is spoken even among non-Chinese, or Chinese norms whether in business or politics are accepted as legitimate in the region. So far the evidence seems to point in the opposite direction, with Anglo- Chinese professionals from the mainland as well as international movie stars such as Jet Li and Gong Li taking Singaporean citizenship and Zhang Ziyi taking Hong Kong citizenship, mainly for the purpose of protecting their assets and properties.

Abramson, Marc S. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Bao Chang. Available here accessed 20 May Bell, Daniel A. Cambridge, Mass. Callahan, William A. Singapore: Times Academic Press, pp. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Coppel, Charles A.